Lift standards: a glossary
If you either own or are thinking of installing a lift then there is a whole host of lift standards, regulations, codes of practice and guidance to advise on best practice. Knowing where to start and which regulations are relevant can be confusing, so we have listed some of the main ones.
Depending on the type of lift different regulations and standards apply, however, we've tried to cover the main items that influence the specification, installation or maintenance of any type of lift.
Acts, Regulations & Directives (post EU exit)
Acts set out the broad legal/policy principles and are passed by the Parliament as law, as such they can only be amended by another Act of Parliament. Regulations are "subsidiary legislation", guidelines that dictate how the provisions of the Act are applied. Below is a list of the main Acts, Regulations and Directives relating to lifts:
The Equality Act 2010 - Requires buildings to be accessible to people with disabilities, so as to limit discrimination against them when gaining access to buildings and services.
Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 - This Act of Parliament is the main piece of UK health and safety legislation. It places a duty on all employers "to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare at work" of all their employees.
Regulations - There is a duty to meet all the requirements of PUWER and LOLER by taking every precaution to ensure safety when using equipment in any workplace, lifts in an existing building fall under these regulations.
- Manual Handling Regulations - Any owner has a duty to protect staff from potential injury caused by inappropriate manual handling.
- Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulation 1998 (PUWER) - These regulations, often abbreviated to PUWER, place duties on people and companies who own, operate or have control over work equipment.
- Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER)- These regulations place duties on people and companies who own, operate or have control over lifting equipment.
- When moving people or goods, your lift will fall under lift or machinery regulations. In turn, this then dictates the directives and standards that are relevant for that lift type.
The Lift Regulations 2016, SI 2016/1083 - Regulations for the construction of lifts where they are intended to be used for the transport of persons. These regulations are met by compliance with among other things, the relevant British Standards and the BE EN 81 series of standards. This regulation covers passenger lifts.
Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations 2008/1597 - Regulations for the construction of platform lifts, goods and service lifts. Again compliance with this regulation is with the relevant below standards. For new lifts, building regulations need to be looked at for guidance on specification.
Part M and B Building Regulations - These are Building Regulations that give guidance on providing ‘access for all’ (Part M) including people with disabilities when considering vertical circulation within a building. It provides information on door opening widths and landing spaces, and positioning of control panels and push buttons in lifts. Part B building regulations give guidance around building fire safety and certain elements of the building, including lifts.
Scottish building regulations - Provide practical guidance with respect to the requirements of the building regulations in Scotland.
What has changed after the EU exit?
Some of the terminology surrounding lift standards has changed, European normative is no longer relevant, however, the details within the new regulations are practically the same, with some changes in terminology and documentation.
The UK incorporating previous regulations and directives into “Designated standards” has replaced the “EU Harmonised standards". The CE mark has been replaced by the UKCA mark for goods sold in Great Britain, with businesses having till December this year to complete the transition (when it becomes mandatory).
Codes of Practice & Standards
Codes of practice and standards are British Standards that either take the form of guidance and recommendations when making a lift selection, installing/working on lifts, or the technical requirements of a lift to comply with standards. The main ones are:
- BS 5655:2002 Part 6: 2011 - Code of practice for the selection and installation of new lifts (passenger and platform)
- BS 5655:2005 Part 11/Part 12 - Code of practice for the undertaking of modifications of electric/hydraulic lifts
- BS 5266-10:2011 - Guide to the design and provision of emergency lighting
- BS 7255:2012 - Code of practice for safe working on lifts
- BS 8300:2018 - Part 1 and 2 - This revised code of practice aims to give the information needed to create an inclusive environment from the outset of a project. Part 1 primarily covers access in and around the external environment and the approaches to buildings. Part 2 provides guidance on access within buildings, including the facilities that should be provided inside buildings. Both parts of BS 8300 supersede the 2009 version of this standard, which has been withdrawn.
- BS 9102:2014 - Code of practice for safe working on lifting platforms
- BS 9999 and BS 9991 - Code of practice for fire safety in the design, management and use of building evacuation.
- ISO/DIS 25745-1 - This international standard is in response to the rapid increase in the consumption of energy on a worldwide basis. The Standard provides a uniform method of measuring the energy consumption of all lifts, escalators and moving walkways.
Standards for lifts
Standards are used to establish the technical detail, allowing the legislation to concentrate on long term policy objectives. Depending on the type of lift and its use, different standards are relevant.
- BS EN 81-1 (electric/traction lifts) & 81-2 (hydraulic lifts):1998 - Safety rules for the Construction and Installation of Lifts now replaced by BS EN 81-20.
- BS EN 81-3:2000 - Electric and hydraulic service lifts
- BS EN 81-20:2020 - A new Safety rules for the Construction and Installation of Lifts standard replacing 81-1 and 81-2 and effective for all lifts handed over from September 2017.
- BS EN 81-21:2018 - New passenger lifts, goods passenger lifts and complete lift modernisation in existing buildings
- BS EN 81-28 2018 - Remote alarm on passenger and goods passenger lifts
- BS EN 81-31:2010 - Accessible goods lifts
- BS EN 81-50:2020 - This new EN81-50 standard governs the design of lifts (effective for all lifts handed over from September 2017).
- BS EN 81-70:2018 - Accessibility to lifts for persons including persons with disability
- BS EN 81-71:2018 - Vandal-resistant passenger lifts and goods passenger lifts
- BS EN 81-72:2020 - Lifts for fire-fighters
- BS EN 81-73:2020 - Behaviour of lifts in the event of a fire
- BS EN 81-76:2011 - Evacuation of disabled persons using passenger and goods passenger lifts. (New draft standard under consultation - details from LEIA)
- BS EN 81-80:2003 - Rules for the improvement of the safety of existing passenger and goods passenger lifts
- CEN TS 81-83:2009 - Rules for upgrading existing lifts for the improvement of the resistance against vandalism
- BS EN 81-82:2013 - Rules for upgrading existing lifts for persons with disability
- BS EN 13015:2001 - Rules for maintenance of lifts and escalators
Standards for platform lifts
BS EN 81-40:2020 - Stairlifts and inclined lifting platforms intended for persons with impaired mobility
BS EN 81-41:2010 - Vertical lifting platforms with enclosed liftway, for persons with impaired mobility
BS EN 81-42 - A draft standard for cabin platform lifts
BS 6440:2011- Powered lift platform with non-enclosed or partially enclosed liftway intended for use by persons with impaired mobility
BS 5900:2012 - Powered home lift in domestic single-occupancy dwellings.
There is no current standard that specifically covers cabin platform lifts, but they must comply with the relevant regulations. There is work underway to create a new standard to cover low-speed lifts (expected to cover cabin platform lifts) called BS EN 81-42, so many manufacturers reference applicable parts of relevant standards, in particular BS EN 81-41 and BS EN 81-70.
So how are all these standards used?
For any the type of lift agreed upon should meet the relevant requirements, for example:
- Conventional passenger lifts should conform to the requirements of BS EN 81-20
and BS EN 81-70 and any regulation relevant to a special feature (e.g. Vandal resistant lifts
should conform to BS EN 81-71)
- Cabin platform lifts should conform to BS EN 81-41 and deviate through theSupply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations 2008
- Enclosed vertical lifting platforms should conform to BS EN 81-41
- Non-enclosed vertical platforms (or step lifts) should conform to BS 6440:2011
Not sure what you need your lift to conform to? No problem!
At Stannah, we recognise that keeping up to date with the latest standards and regulations can be overwhelming. Therefore, we're here to take the weight off your shoulders! As a reputable lift service provider, we are happy to offer our expert advice, helping you to meet these standards in the quickest and easiest way possible.
Last updated: 7th August 2021 to include EU exit changes and draft standard
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